Nilgai used to be widespread across the Middle East but in recent years they have disappeared from Bangladesh, though they continue to survive in India, Pakistan and Nepal, and have been introduced into Texas.

Only the male Nilgai have horns, but both sexes possess manes on their necks. The wiry coat is reddish-brown in males and a paler colour in females.

During the mating season, males compete for territories, usually by aggressive displays or ritualized fighting, involving pushing each other with their necks. Occasionally, proper fighting occurs, and they drop to their knees, lunging at each other with their short stabbing horns. The winners have the opportunity to gather harems of up to ten females.

Distribution: Eastern Pakistan, India, and Nepal. Introduced into Texas.

Habitat: Forests, jungles and occasionally open grasslands.

Food: Grass, leaves, twigs, and will also eat fruit and sugar cane.

Size: 1.8 - 2.1 m (6 - 7 ft); up to 300 kg (660 lb).

Maturity: Females 2 years; males 5 years.

Breeding: Occasionally 3 calves born at a time; twins very frequent.

Life span: 10 years.

Status: Threatened.